Home / Career Guides / HVAC Technician

HVAC Technician Career Guide

What is an HVAC technician?

An HVAC technician, short for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning technician, is a professional who installs, maintains, and repairs heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in both residential and commercial buildings. They are trained to understand the complex systems maintaining temperature and air quality. Through timely maintenance and repair, they ensure people’s comfort in all seasons and contribute to energy efficiency, helping households and businesses reduce their energy bills.

These professionals are essential to the efficient operation of modern residential and commercial buildings. Almost all structures utilize HVAC technology to regulate indoor conditions, from apartments and homes to schools and hospitals. Without their expertise, maintaining a consistent and comfortable temperature in buildings would be challenging and potentially harm occupants’ health and well-being.

Duties and responsibilities

HVAC technicians are responsible for a broad range of duties related to HVAC systems. They install, maintain, and repair these systems, including heaters, air conditioners, and ventilation equipment. As part of their tasks, they connect systems to fuel, water, and refrigerant lines. Technicians typically also inspect and test systems to verify compliance with plans and specifications and to detect and locate malfunctions.

Additionally, they contribute to the design of HVAC systems for new buildings, suggesting modifications for energy efficiency and improved performance. These professionals also interact with clients, explaining maintenance, repair, or installation work to guarantee customer satisfaction. They may also need to prepare and submit job reports or records to their supervisors.

Work environment

As an HVAC technician, one can expect to spend considerable time working in various indoor and outdoor settings. They could work in attics, basements, and crawl spaces, often in cramped conditions. The job demands physical stamina, often lifting heavy parts and equipment, and agility to work in awkward spaces. Technicians typically travel between multiple job sites each day, conducting inspections, installations, or repairs in each location.

Some risks like exposure to refrigerants and burns from hot equipment parts are associated with the job. However, technicians are trained in safety procedures to mitigate these risks. They must also wear protective gear, including safety glasses and hard hats.

Typical work hours

Typically, HVAC technicians work full-time, but the job often includes evening or weekend shifts, and overtime is not uncommon, especially during peak seasons. In the summertime, when cooling systems are heavily used, or in the winter, when heating systems are essential, technicians may need to work longer hours to meet increased demand.

It’s worth noting that being a technician can involve being on-call. This means one might need to be available outside of regular work hours to handle emergencies, particularly in climates with extreme heat or cold, where a delay in repairing a system could pose substantial discomfort or health risks to customers.

How to become an HVAC technician

This career guide section outlines how to become an HVAC technician. It includes critical steps such as earning certification, gaining on-the-job experience, and meeting licensure requirements.

Step 1: Receive a high school diploma or GED

The first step is completing high school or earning a GED. High school math, physics, and vocational education classes can build foundational knowledge for HVAC work.

Step 2: Attend a technical or trade school

Next, consider enrolling in a technical or trade school program that offers HVAC training. These courses provide important knowledge on HVAC system design, equipment construction, installation methods, and system diagnostics.

Step 3: Complete an apprenticeship

An HVAC apprenticeship is an essential step in practical learning. During an apprenticeship, you will work under the guidance of an experienced technician and gain real-world skills in HVAC installation and repair.

Step 4: Obtain relevant certifications

Certifications validate your skills as an HVAC technician. The most common certification is the HVAC Excellence certification, but others, such as the North American Technician Excellence (NATE) certification, are also widely recognized.

Step 5: Gain work experience

Before licensure, you must gather work experience. Most states require two to five years of experience working with HVAC systems. This stage allows you to apply classroom and internship skills in a professional setting.

Step 6: Apply for a state license

Many states require technicians to hold a license. Licensure typically requires a minimum amount of work experience and may demand that applicants pass an exam.

Step 7: Continue professional development

Even after securing a job, they must keep pace with evolving technologies. Joining professional HVAC organizations and attending industry conferences can help you stay updated with the latest developments.

How much do HVAC technicians make?

Salaries for HVAC technicians are influenced by various factors, including experience, industry, educational background, geographical location, and the size of the employing organization. It’s also worth noting that compensation for this role can be significantly influenced by the demand for HVAC services, which can fluctuate seasonally.

Highest paying industries

  • Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing – $75,000
  • Natural Gas Distribution – $72,000
  • Telecommunications – $70,000
  • Postal Service – $68,000
  • Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution – $65,000

Highest paying states

  • Alaska – $68,340
  • Hawaii – $65,930
  • Connecticut – $64,900
  • Massachusetts – $63,260
  • Washington – $60,670

Browse HVAC technician salary data by market

Types of HVAC technicians

This career guide section highlights the various career types and areas of specialization for HVAC technicians. Below, we explore the unique attributes and responsibilities of each job title.

Residential HVAC technician

As a residential HVAC technician, your primary responsibility is to install, maintain, and repair heating, ventilation, and cooling units for homes. Client interaction is also key, making excellent customer service skills an asset.

Commercial HVAC technician

In commercial settings, HVAC technicians often tend to larger systems in facilities such as office buildings, schools, or hospital complexes. Along with basic HVAC duties, this role usually involves working on more complex projects and may require additional certifications.

HVAC installation technician

If you specialize as an installation technician, your job is primarily setting up new systems in buildings under construction or updating older systems. This role demands a strong understanding of various HVAC setups and the ability to read and interpret blueprints and installation diagrams.

HVAC service technician

Service technicians focus on the maintenance and repair aspect, working to ensure the longevity of existing HVAC systems. They perform routine check-ups, diagnose issues, and fix problems to ensure the system functions correctly.

Refrigeration technician

A specific branch of the HVAC field, refrigeration technicians handle the installation, maintenance, and repair of refrigeration systems. This role often deals with grocery stores, hotels, or any businesses needing industrial-level refrigeration.

Top skills for HVAC technicians

This section outlines the primary skills and traits needed for career success as an HVAC technician. To succeed, they combine strong mechanical knowledge with important soft skills, including problem-solving and customer service capabilities.

Mechanical skills

In this trade, you need well-developed mechanical skills. This may include knowing all about how machines, tools, and systems operate. As technicians regularly diagnose problems and repair machinery, this knowledge is key.

Problem-solving skills

A quick, logical thought process is valuable in this role as HVAC techs are regularly tasked with identifying issues and devising solutions in a timely manner.

Customer service skills

Whether dealing with dissatisfied customers or explaining complex systems to homeowners, good customer service skills will elevate the quality of their work. Effective communication also fosters an understanding of customers’ needs, resulting in customer satisfaction.

Physical stamina

Being in good physical shape allows technicians to handle the physical aspects of their role, including lifting heavy equipment, working in tight spaces, and spending long hours on their feet.

Technical knowledge

Given the technological advancements in today’s HVAC systems, they must have a thorough knowledge of technical schematics, blueprints, and the latest HVAC equipment to be successful.

HVAC technician career path options

Embarking on a career path as an HVAC technician opens up a wide range of possibilities for advancement and specialization. Many technicians find fulfillment in roles that offer increased responsibility and the opportunity to showcase their well-honed skills.

One typical career progression is the move into a supervisor or management role. This often involves overseeing a team of technicians, managing projects, and dealing with clients directly. This type of role generally requires advanced technical knowledge, problem-solving skills, and the ability to coordinate teams.

Another avenue of advancement is seeking employment with larger corporations or institutions. Technicians with experience and a portfolio of successful installations and repairs can look into working in industries like manufacturing, hospitals, or universities that sustain large-scale HVAC systems. These roles often include added responsibilities and coordination with larger teams.

Profitably, these professionals may consider entrepreneurship within the field. Owning and running their own HVAC business allows individuals to apply their technical knowledge while developing additional skills in client relations, business management, and strategy. While this path comes with its own challenges, it also presents rewards, including greater potential earnings and the satisfaction of business ownership.

Specialization is another career path they might choose. Technicians can enhance their skills and knowledge in areas like energy management, refrigeration, or solar power, paving the way to become experts within these niches. This specialization often leads to more extensive career opportunities and higher earning potential.

The role of an HVAC technician has seen significant transformation over the past few years. This can be primarily attributed to the fast-paced evolution of technology and a heightened emphasis on green living and energy efficiency. The introduction of digital tools and modern equipment has prompted these professionals to develop new skills, including managing complex control systems and deciphering software programs.

As society becomes more conscious about energy consumption, the demand for services to convert conventional systems into more environmentally friendly HVAC systems is soaring. This trend presents opportunities for technicians to specialize in green technology, leading to a larger prospective client base and elevated earning potential. Additionally, with increasing numbers of aging buildings requiring HVAC system upgrades, the need for well-trained HVAC technicians persists.

Employment projections

According to the latest data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers, collectively known as HVAC technicians, is projected to grow 6 percent through 2032. This growth rate is about as fast as the average for all occupations. Commercial and residential building construction will drive employment growth, and job opportunities are expected to be good.

HVAC technician career tips

Stay updated with the latest in HVAC technologies

Keeping current with the latest technology trends in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry is imperative for your professional growth. Technological changes are constant, from energy-efficient systems to smart homes. Learning about these advancements will give you an edge in the marketplace and position you as a valuable resource to employers and clients.

Pursue professional certifications

Certification demonstrates competence and professionalism in the HVAC industry. Several certification programs can enhance your credibility and job prospects, with some examples below:

  • EPA 608 Certification
  • North American Technician Excellence (NATE)
  • HVAC Excellence
  • RSES (Refrigeration Service Engineers Society) Certifications

Build a professional network

Make connections with other professionals in the HVAC industry. Networking can open up opportunities for job advancements, learning, and industry insights. Here’s a list of professional associations and networks where you can start:

  • Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA)
  • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
  • Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES)
  • Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors Association (PHCC)

Constantly enhance your practical skills

Experience and practical skills remain highly valued in the HVAC industry. Refining your hands-on skills from system installation to repair and maintenance should be a continual process. Look out for skill-based training opportunities in your area, or potentially work under an experienced technician to enhance your practical knowledge.

Prioritize safety

A well-trained HVAC technician understands the importance of workplace safety. Learn and stick to industry best practices regarding handling equipment, using protective gear, and following procedures to avoid accidents and injuries on the job. Most importantly, keep yourself updated on the latest safety protocols and guidelines released by authorized agencies.

Offer excellent customer service

In this field, customer satisfaction can be your key to recurring business and positive referrals. Ensure you communicate effectively with clients, show respect for their property, and strive to meet and even exceed customer expectations whenever possible. Knowledge and skill are extremely important, but your attitude and the service you provide will set you ahead of the competition.

Where the HVAC technician jobs are

Top employers

  • Johnson Controls
  • Siemens
  • Ingersoll Rand
  • Carrier Corporation
  • Honeywell

Top states

  • California
  • Florida
  • Texas
  • New York
  • Washington

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • Monster
  • LinkedIn
  • SimplyHired


What are daily duties of an HVAC technician?

Daily duties of an HVAC technician include inspecting and testing systems to verify compliance with plans and specifications as well as safety and environmental regulations. Tasks also involve adjusting system controls to set recommended levels of operation, installing, connecting, and adjusting thermostats, humidistats, and timers, and diagnosing and repairing faults in HVAC systems.

Is formal education necessary to work as an HVAC technician?

While a high school diploma or equivalent is typically required, many HVAC technicians receive training from technical schools, community colleges, or apprenticeships. Programs generally last from six months to two years and cover topics such as HVAC design, electronics, blueprint reading, and tool use.

Are there physical demands related to the job of an HVAC technician?

Yes, HVAC technicians often need to lift and move heavy equipment and materials. In addition, they may need to climb ladders, work in tight spaces, and remain in uncomfortable positions for extended periods. Therefore, good physical condition and agility are typically necessary for this job.

What skills are necessary for an HVAC technician?

Practical skills, such as the ability to handle tools appropriately and safely, are crucial. HVAC technicians also need solid troubleshooting skills to find and fix problems in different systems. Basic math skills are important for making calculations related to system functions and adjustments. Good customer service skills, patience, accuracy, and the ability to work under pressure are also helpful attributes.

Do HVAC technicians need to be certified?

Most states require HVAC technicians to be licensed, and many employers prefer or require certification. The specifics of these requirements vary by state. Some certifications pertain to specific types of equipment, like residential air conditioning or commercial refrigeration.

Are HVAC technicians susceptible to any job-related injuries?

Yes, HVAC technicians work with sharp metal parts, electric components, and potentially harmful refrigerants. This can put them at risk for cuts, burns, and other injuries. Technicians also work in varying conditions, sometimes in extremely hot or cold environments. Proper training, equipment, and compliance with safety regulations can minimize these risks.

What type of working environments are typical for HVAC technicians?

HVAC technicians work in a variety of locations, including homes, schools, hospitals, offices, and factories. These can be indoor or outdoor environments, depending on the specific task at hand. The work may be on rooftops or in underground spaces to inspect, repair, or install equipment. The hours can be long, especially during peak seasons.

How do HVAC technicians stay up to date with new technology?

HVAC technicians stay current by participating in ongoing training or education. Manufacturers and industry organizations often offer courses on new equipment and technology. Being a part of industry associations and subscribing to HVAC industry publications can also help in staying informed about the latest advances and trends.

Do HVAC technicians interact with customers?

Yes, HVAC technicians routinely interact with customers, including residential homeowners, business owners or managers, and facilities managers in larger buildings. Technicians explain what work they will be performing, answer questions, and provide information about system operation and maintenance. Good communication skills and a customer-focused mindset are valuable in this profession.