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Research Scientist Career Guide

What is a research scientist?

A research scientist is a complex role found in various industries, including, but not limited to, healthcare, academia, environmental science, and technology. They engage in rigorous and methodical exploration in their field of specialty, seeking to develop new knowledge, products, or technology. These professionals contribute significantly to expanding our understanding of the world, leading to breakthroughs in a variety of sectors.

The work performed by research scientists can directly influence new policies, invent lifesaving medicines, contribute toward environmental sustainability, or drive technological developments. Their value revolves around advancements, change, and progress in the scientific community.

Duties and responsibilities

A research scientist is responsible for designing, conducting, and analyzing experiments or research projects. This involves developing research methodologies, recording detailed observations, and interpreting and analyzing data. They also make adjustments to research processes as necessary to achieve optimal results.

Additionally, they present findings in scholarly papers, technical reports, or scientific conferences. They collaborate with industry or business leaders, policy-makers, or nonprofit organizations to apply the results of their research and contribute to writing grant proposals to secure funding.

Work environment

A research scientist typically operates in a laboratory, field, or office setting, depending on their area of professional focus. In laboratories, they use technical equipment, rigorously studying chemicals, biological samples, or physical phenomena. Field scientists may work in varied and often challenging geographical settings, studying environmental organisms or the earth’s physical features. Office-based research scientists pour over data, write reports, and develop computational models.

Their work environment is usually collaborative, as research scientists often work as part of a team of scientists and other professionals. Their workdays are heavily structured around the precise procedural demands of scientific research, and there may be strict deadlines for project milestones or report submissions.

Typical work hours

Research scientists typically work full-time. Similar to other professions, this usually means a 40-hour work week. However, the nature of scientific research may sometimes demand extended working hours. Monitoring ongoing experiments or meeting tight project deadlines may necessitate working late into the evening or even over weekends.

For those working in field research, their schedule can be deeply impacted by the requirements of the study. This may entail early mornings, late nights, or extended periods away from home. Researchers may have additional teaching responsibilities in academic settings that can alter their schedule during the academic year.

How to become a research scientist

This career guide section outlines how to become a research scientist. Preparing yourself for a successful career as a research scientist includes specific steps involving education, hands-on research, and professional advancement.

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree

Begin your journey toward becoming a research scientist with a bachelor’s degree in a related field. This could include biology, chemistry, physics, or another science-related domain. This undergraduate journey will offer a foundational understanding of scientific principles and methods.

Step 2: Acquire laboratory experience

Relevant experience, particularly within a laboratory, is beneficial. This could be gained through undergraduate laboratory courses or internship placements within scientific research labs. Here, you will learn to use scientific apparatus, follow safety protocols, and perform experimental procedures.

Step 3: Pursue a master’s degree

While not always required, a master’s degree in a related field could enhance your qualifications and open up opportunities for higher-level research projects. It’s common for aspiring research scientists to specialize in their area of interest at this stage.

Step 4: Obtain a Ph.D.

A Ph.D. is usually mandatory for most research scientist positions, especially those in academia. This degree involves in-depth research within your chosen field, thereby equipping you with profound knowledge and research expertise.

Step 5: Complete postdoctoral training

After earning a Ph.D., it’s common to undertake postdoctoral training, which involves working on advanced research projects under the supervision of experienced research scientists. It allows you to gain extensive practical experience, sharpen your research skills, and develop a track record of published research—making you more competitive in the job market.

Step 6: Apply for jobs

With a Ph.D. and postdoctoral training under your belt, you’re ready to seek out research scientist positions. Depending on your interest, these jobs can be found in academic institutions, government agencies, or private sector companies dedicated to research and development.

How much do research scientists make?

Research scientist salaries vary by experience, industry, education, location, and organization size. Total compensation is dependent mainly on the field of research, the scope of projects, and the level of impact on scientific advancement.

Highest paying industries

  • Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing – $105,430
  • Scientific Research and Development Services – $100,790
  • Government – $97,230

Highest paying states

  • California – $114,600
  • New Jersey – $111,140
  • Washington – $103,390
  • Connecticut – $97,370
  • Texas – $96,150

Browse research scientist salary data by market

Types of research scientists

This career guide section highlights the various career types and areas of specialization for research scientists. Below, we highlight the unique attributes and responsibilities of each job title.

Industrial research scientist

Working in private sector industries, such as pharmaceutical companies or technology corporations, is something industrial research scientists often do. Their primary role involves conducting experiments or investigations to develop new products, improve existing ones, or explore theoretical advancements.

Academic research scientist

As the name suggests, the professional domain of academic research scientists is the global realm of higher education. They are involved in groundbreaking research projects while performing a broad range of other duties, such as teaching, mentoring students, and writing grant proposals.

Government research scientist

These professionals dedicate their time and effort to projects commissioned by governmental bodies. Their tasks could lead scientists to research public health matters, environmental issues, or national security, helping to inform government policy.

Clinical research scientist

Within the healthcare sector, clinical research scientists play an invaluable role. Their primary responsibilities include designing, implementing, and interpreting the results of clinical trials, all to advance medical understanding and improve patient care.

Field research scientist

Field research scientists take the lead when it comes to outdoor explorations and conducting investigations in natural settings. They are usually involved in geology, biology, or climate science, where extensive fieldwork is integral to their research.

Top skills for research scientists

This section outlines the primary skills and traits needed for career success as a research scientist. The role of a research scientist often requires a combination of technical and soft skills, including analytical ability, communication skills, and teamwork.

Analytical ability

Research scientists need strong analytical abilities to design, conduct, and evaluate experiments using complex statistical analysis. This means they must not only understand the methods and theories behind these experiments, but also be able to interpret and communicate the results in a meaningful way. An analytical mind is vital for examining elements, synthesizing information and draw insightful conclusions.

Communication skills

Communication skills are integral to the role of a research scientist, who must effectively communicate their findings to colleagues, the public, and other stakeholders through both written and oral presentations. Reports, academic papers, presentations at conferences or to investors, and informal discussions require strong communication skills. Explaining complex ideas in a clear and accessible manner is essential.


Often, research is not a solitary endeavor. It involves working in teams made up of diverse disciplines and backgrounds. Thus, being able to work effectively with others is vital. Collaborative and cooperative behavior can significantly improve the efficiency and success of a research team’s efforts.

Problem-solving skills

Unforeseen challenges are often part of research. A good research scientist must be composed and adaptive in the face of problems, frustration, or failure. Their problem-solving aptitude is paramount in creating innovative solutions and continuously pushing the boundaries of their work. They need to be critical thinkers who can evaluate different approaches and find the most effective method to solve problems and answer questions.

Technical skills

A research scientist must possess relevant technical skills, including knowledge in a specific scientific field, laboratory procedures, and the ability to use specialized research tools and equipment. Depending on the scientific discipline, this could involve biotechnology practices, programming capabilities, or advanced statistical tools proficiency. Staying updated with new technologies and tools can significantly assist in more effective and efficient research.

Research scientist career path

After several years of conducting experiments and research, it’s common to move on to other roles within the scientific community. These will likely still be research-based but with additional responsibilities and leadership.

Becoming a project manager is attainable after gaining relevant work experience. This role involves the management of projects and supervising a team of researchers. It calls for a deeper comprehension of project planning, budgeting, and team coordination. If scientists prefer to advance within their fields without assuming administrative duties, a career in specialized research may present extended opportunities.

Establishing a reputation for proficiency and reliability can lead to an invitation to join a scientific advisory board. On such boards, members provide guidance based on their professional expertise and knowledge of scientific trends. These individuals play a critical role in influencing organizational decisions and directing future investigations.

Those inclined toward teaching could transition into academia, where they can use their skills and knowledge to educate aspiring scientists. Universities and research institutions offer opportunities to divide one’s time between teaching and research, which is a rewarding career route for many.

Becoming an independent consultant is also an avenue for experienced scientists. This involves sharing your expertise with various organizations, often as part of a team formed specifically for a project. This role often demands extensive travel and flexible working hours.

Recently, a trend has been leaning toward cross-disciplinary research, where firms merge different study areas to achieve more comprehensive and impactful results. Biotechnology, data science, and artificial intelligence have seen a substantial inflow of research scientists. Also, increased stress on environmental sustainability has led to a surge in demand for research scientists in fields related to climate change, alternative energy sources, and waste management.

The digital revolution has heavily impacted this profession. With the mounting amount of data available, research scientists must be proficient in data analytics tools to handle and interpret large datasets. Technological disruptions require constant up-skilling in digital literacy, making lifelong learning almost mandatory in this profession. Scientists are increasingly conducting and sharing their research online, contributing to the trend of open science, where findings are freely accessible to the public.

Employment projections

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the overall employment of research scientists is projected to grow 21 percent through 2031, significantly faster than the average for all occupations. Increasingly, the workforce is expected to demand higher levels of education and training. With increased public awareness of environmental and public health issues, there will be a boost in demand for professionals in these particular research areas. The role of a research scientist promises potential growth in the future with ample opportunities for career advancement.

Research scientist career tips

Understand the big picture

As a research scientist, your primary task will involve looking into the finer details of various study areas. It’s essential, however, to regularly take a step back and comprehend the larger implications of your work. Develop a clear perspective of how your research pertains to more significant questions – a practice that will aid you while framing your direction and communicating findings to non-specialists.

Invest time in programming and data analysis

Data interpretation is a significant aspect of research. Familiarize yourself with software such as R, Python, and SQL, which are popular in research. These tools can augment your ability to interpret and visualize complex data, making you a more effective researcher. Continuous learning of trending technological tools can provide a competitive edge in your career.

Become acquainted with writing research grants

Funding is a critical aspect of scientific research. Understanding how to write a compelling research grant proposal that can secure necessary funding is vital for every research scientist. Work on developing this skill early in your career, as it will help you implement your ideas and make you more employable.

Build a professional network

A strong network can open avenues for collaborative projects, provide learning opportunities from various wisdom wells, and even help secure funding. Do not limit your networking to conferences and seminars; take advantage of digital platforms as well.

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  • The National Association of Science Writers (NASW)
  • Society for Science & the Public
  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS)

Continuous learning

Science is ever-evolving; hence, the learning curve for a research scientist is constant. Stay updated with the latest research techniques, tools, and discoveries in your specialty area. This consistent learning will enhance your skills and progress your career.

  • Courses and certifications in data analysis and programming languages
  • Participation in seminars and workshops related to your field of research
  • Engaging with scientists’ blogs, podcasts, and webinars for the latest research developments
  • Taking advantage of every learning opportunity in high-tech lab equipment and software

Where the research jobs are

Top employers

  • Google
  • IBM
  • Microsoft
  • Amazon
  • Facebook

Top states

  • California
  • Washington
  • New York
  • Texas
  • Massachusetts

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • LinkedIn
  • Monster
  • ResearchGate


What is the primary role of a research scientist?

A research scientist plans and conducts experiments, analyzes data, interprets results, and prepares related reports. The job involves developing and testing theories, using a broad range of methods to gather data, and ensuring the accuracy of their findings.

What skills are important for a research scientist?

A research scientist must possess strong analytical skills, as much of the job involves analyzing data sets and interpreting findings. Other vital skills include problem-solving to aid in forming theories and conducting experiments and written and verbal communication skills for presenting findings to colleagues, stakeholders, or the scientific community.

What competencies are required for a research scientist?

Besides technical expertise, a research scientist needs mastery of scientific methodologies, attention to detail in experiments, and data analysis competencies. The ability to work independently and as part of a team, the flexibility to handle changing priorities, and the capacity to remain updated with scientific advancements are also important.

Do research scientists work in teams?

Yes, research scientists often work in teams to conduct and analyze experiments. Collaborating with other scientists can facilitate complex projects, bring different perspectives, and improve the rigor of results. A team may include other scientists, research associates, lab technicians, and interns.

What level of education is required to become a research scientist?

Generally, a research scientist holds a doctoral degree in their specific field of science. Before pursuing a doctorate, they gain a solid foundation through a bachelor’s degree and often a master’s degree in a related field. Some positions also require postdoctoral experience. However, different fields and organizations can have distinct educational requirements.

What are the long-term career development opportunities for a research scientist?

The career development path for a research scientist can be quite versatile, depending on the area of study. Opportunities can include becoming a senior scientist, a research director, or pursuing an academic career. Some research scientists choose to transition into related roles such as project management, scientific consulting, or even science writing.

What challenges should a research scientist expect in their career?

Research scientists can face several challenges, including securing funding for research projects and competitions for employment and recognition in their field. In addition to these, they often need to stay updated with the latest relevant scientific advancements and be able to adapt to changes in research methodologies. Another common challenge is the time-consuming nature of conducting extensive research and publishing in peer-reviewed journals.

How does work-life balance typically look for a research scientist?

Work-life balance can vary significantly among research scientists, largely depending on their specific role and current projects. While some may experience regular hours, others might work overtime or on weekends, particularly in high-stakes or time-sensitive projects. However, many research institutions and companies are conscious of the need for balance and provide support for flexible working hours and leave policies.

What is the most rewarding aspect of being a research scientist?

Many research scientists find the discovery process the most rewarding aspect of their work. That is, the ability to develop and test hypotheses, analyze data, and contribute to the scientific community and, in some cases, to society as a whole. Additionally, the intellectual challenge and the opportunity to work on cutting-edge technologies and concepts can be deeply fulfilling.