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Truck Driver Career Guide

What is a truck driver?

A truck driver is a professional who operates and drives trucks, transporting goods from one location to another. They are crucial to the supply chain and logistics industries, enabling the movement of various products, from food and clothing to machinery and fuel, across cities, states, or even countries.

This role is essential to commerce and the functioning of modern society. By ensuring the safe and timely delivery of goods, they contribute significantly to various industries and businesses, facilitating trade and access to products for consumers.

Duties and responsibilities

A truck driver’s primary responsibility is transporting goods from one place to another. This involves loading and unloading cargo, following correct safety procedures for handling goods, and ensuring deliveries are made on time. They are also responsible for inspecting their vehicles before and after trips, noting any mechanical issues, and coordinating necessary maintenance or repairs.

In addition to driving, these drivers often need to plan routes effectively, taking into account road conditions, weather, and delivery deadlines. They are also responsible for maintaining logs of their travel and rest periods to comply with state and federal regulations.

Work environment

Truck drivers spend most of their working hours on the road, often in long-haul trucks equipped with sleeping quarters. The job can be physically demanding and often involves heavy lifting during the loading and unloading. Depending on the nature of the goods being transported, drivers may also need to take special precautions to ensure safety.

They may face various weather conditions and need to stay alert during long periods of driving. Despite the potential challenges, the role offers independence and the opportunity to travel and see different parts of the country.

Typical work hours

The work hours for truck drivers can be long and irregular. They often work evenings, weekends, and holidays and may spend extended periods away from home, particularly for long-haul assignments. 

Federal regulations limit how many hours these drivers can be on duty and driving, requiring rest periods to ensure safety. Despite the demanding schedule, this role is essential and provides a vital service to the economy and society.

How to become a truck driver

This role involves obtaining the necessary licensure, honing practical driving skills, and being prepared for a lifestyle that often includes long hours on the road. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to become a truck driver.

Step 1: Obtain a high school diploma or equivalent

While not always required, having a high school diploma or GED is often preferred by employers. This education provides basic math and reading skills necessary for these drivers, particularly when handling delivery paperwork or logging hours and miles driven.

Step 2: Get a regular driver’s license

Before applying for a commercial driver’s license (CDL), you must have a regular state-issued driver’s license. This license allows you to practice basic driving skills and build a clean driving record, which can be important when applying for jobs.

Step 3: Learn more about the job with online courses

Consider looking into these online courses that will teach you additional information about what being a truck driver is like, what truck driving school is like, and tips for earning your CDL:

Step 4: Attend a professional truck driving school

Although not required in all states, attending a professional truck driving school can be beneficial. These schools provide specialized training on handling large vehicles, understanding road safety, and following laws specific to the trucking industry. Additionally, some driving schools help their students find their first job after graduation.

Step 5: Obtain a CDL

To legally drive commercial trucks in the United States, you must obtain a CDL. Requirements vary by state, but generally, you’ll need to pass a written knowledge exam and a practical driving test. Some states also require a medical examination.

Step 6: Gain experience

Starting out, you may work as a driver’s assistant or take on less desirable routes. As you gain experience and prove your reliability, you may have the opportunity to take on long-haul trips or routes that offer better pay.

Step 7: Consider endorsements

Endorsements on your CDL can improve your employability and income. These include certifications to haul hazardous materials, tank vehicles, or double/triple trailers. Each endorsement requires passing a knowledge test and, in some cases, a skills test.

Step 8: Apply for truck driving jobs

With your CDL and an endorsement, you can apply for truck driving jobs. Tailor your resume and cover letter to highlight your driving experience, knowledge of industry regulations, and physical stamina.

How much do truck drivers make?

The salary of a truck driver can be influenced by various factors, such as: 

  • The type of freight they carry 
  • The distances they drive
  • The industry they work in
  • Their level of experience
  • Their geographical location 

Those who carry hazardous materials or drive long distances often earn more due to the increased responsibilities and time away from home.

Experience is a significant factor in determining their salary. Those with several years of experience on the road generally earn more than entry-level drivers. The employment industry can also affect salaries, with truck drivers working in industries like mining or construction typically making more.

Geographical location plays a role too. Drivers in regions with a higher cost of living or a high demand for transportation services often earn higher salaries than those in other parts of the country.

Highest paying industries

  • Postal Service – $60,456
  • Couriers and Express Delivery Services – $57,445
  • General Freight Trucking – $55,096
  • Specialized Freight Trucking – $70,566
  • Wholesale Trade – $58,067

Highest paying states

  • Alaska – $59,009
  • Nevada – $65,090
  • Massachusetts – $64,345
  • New York – $73,578
  • Connecticut – $62,040

Browse truck driver salary data by market

Types of truck drivers

This career guide section explores the diverse field of truck driving. A driver’s specific duties and requirements can vary widely depending on the type of vehicle driven, the cargo transported, and the distances traveled. 

Long-haul truck driver

Also known as over-the-road drivers, long-haul truck drivers operate heavy trucks to transport goods over long distances, often across state lines or the country. They usually handle the loading and unloading of cargo and are typically on the road for extended periods, sometimes weeks at a time.

Local truck driver

Local truck drivers operate within a specific region, often within a state or a metropolitan area. Deliveries are usually made to businesses or homes, and they return home at the end of each shift. Their routes are more predictable, and they spend less time away from home than long-haul drivers.

LTL freight driver

Less-than-truckload (LTL) freight drivers transport relatively small freight. Instead of carrying one large shipment for one customer, they carry smaller shipments for multiple customers in a single run. These drivers often have more stops and interact more frequently with customers than other types of drivers.

Flatbed truck driver

These truck drivers operate flatbed trucks with flat, open trailers with no sides or roofs. Their job is to transport goods such as heavy machinery, construction materials, or oversized loads that require more space than a closed trailer. They need to know how to secure loads effectively to ensure safe transportation.

Tanker truck driver

Drivers of tanker trucks transport liquids or gases in large tanks. This can include many substances, from milk and water to hazardous materials like fuel or chemicals. These drivers need specific skills and certifications, especially when transporting hazardous materials.

Refrigerated freight driver

Refrigerated freight or reefer drivers transport goods that must be kept at specific temperatures, such as food, pharmaceuticals, or chemicals. They operate refrigerated trucks and must ensure that the refrigeration unit works correctly and maintains the right temperature throughout the journey.

Owner-operator truck driver

Those who own and operate their own trucks are called owner-operator truck drivers. They can work independently, take jobs from freight brokers, or lease their services to a trucking company. Being an owner-operator requires a significant investment and additional responsibilities, but it also offers greater control and potential earnings.

Team driver

Team drivers are two drivers who take turns driving the same truck. This allows the truck to cover long distances without stopping, as one driver can rest while the other is driving. Team driving can be challenging due to the shared living space, but it can also provide company on long journeys and allow drivers to cover more miles and earn more money.

Top skills for truck drivers

Driving skills are fundamental for any truck driver to ensure the safe and timely delivery of goods and contribute to the safety of all road users.

Drivers must be able to maneuver large vehicles safely in various conditions and environments, from busy city streets to remote country roads. They must also understand and follow all traffic laws and regulations. 

Physical stamina is also essential, as drivers often spend long hours on the road, which requires endurance and staying alert. In addition, they may need to load and unload heavy goods. Physical fitness helps them cope with these demands and maintain their performance during their shifts.

Time management abilities are crucial, as they often operate on tight schedules and must plan their routes efficiently to ensure timely deliveries. This includes considering traffic conditions, rest breaks, and loading and unloading times. Good time management can lead to more efficient operations, customer satisfaction, and compliance with regulations regarding driving hours.

They spend a lot of time on the road alone and need to be able to handle any issues that arise, from minor vehicle malfunctions to unexpected delays. The ability to work independently, make decisions, and solve problems on the fly contributes to their effectiveness and reliability.

It’s vital to understand the basic workings of their vehicle and be able to perform routine checks and minor repairs. Mechanical knowledge can help drivers maintain their vehicles in good condition, spot potential issues early, and minimize downtime due to mechanical problems.

Truck driver career path

The career path for a truck driver typically begins with obtaining a commercial driver’s license (CDL) and starting as an entry-level driver. This initial phase provides foundational experience in the following:

  • Handling various types of trucks
  • Understanding safety regulations
  • Gaining proficiency in long-distance driving

After gaining some experience, you may specialize in driving certain types of vehicles or handling specific cargo, such as hazardous materials or oversized loads. Specializing often requires additional training and endorsements on your CDL, but it can lead to higher pay and more job opportunities.

With several years of experience, you may advance to roles with more responsibility, such as a lead driver or driver trainer. In these roles, you would oversee other drivers, provide training and guidance, and often handle more complex or critical deliveries.

Further down the line, some truck drivers transition into managerial or supervisory roles, such as fleet managers or transportation supervisors. These positions involve overseeing a fleet of drivers, coordinating logistics, and ensuring safety and transportation regulations compliance.

Ultimately, some drivers may become owner-operators, starting their own trucking business. This path offers the potential for higher earnings but also involves more responsibilities, including business management, securing contracts, and maintaining a fleet of trucks.

The role of truck drivers is experiencing significant changes due to technological advancements, industry regulations, and shifts in the economy. 

A major trend is the development and testing of autonomous trucks, which could potentially revolutionize the trucking industry. While fully autonomous trucks are not yet a reality, technological advancements are leading to more automated truck features that can assist drivers and improve safety.

Another trend is the increasing focus on safety and regulatory compliance. Regulations related to hours of service, electronic logging devices, and driver health are shaping the industry and influencing the day-to-day responsibilities of these drivers.

Additionally, the growth of e-commerce is affecting the trucking industry. There’s an increasing demand for drivers to support the last-mile delivery of goods, which involves transporting goods from a transportation hub to the final delivery destination.

Employment projections for truck drivers

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), heavy and tractor-trailer truck driver employment is projected to grow 4 percent through 2031, about as fast as the average for all occupations. As the demand for goods increases, more drivers will be needed to keep supply chains moving. 

However, introducing new technologies and automation could limit their demand in the future. Despite this, prospects should be favorable for qualified individuals interested in this line of work, especially for long-haul drivers and those willing to work irregular hours.

Truck driver career tips

Prioritize safety

Safety should be your top priority in the role. Follow all traffic laws, maintain your vehicle in good condition, take regular breaks to avoid fatigue, and be vigilant about road conditions and other drivers. Prioritizing safety can help protect you, your cargo, and other road users.

Maintain physical health

Truck driving can be physically demanding, often requiring long hours of sitting and irregular sleep patterns. Maintaining physical health can help you stay alert and perform your duties effectively. This might involve regular exercise, a balanced diet, and ensuring you get enough sleep.

Improve navigation skills

You’ll often travel to new locations and deal with various road conditions. Improving your navigation skills can help you reach your destinations efficiently and avoid getting lost.

Build a professional network

Networking can provide opportunities for learning, collaboration, and career development. Consider joining professional organizations related to truck driving, such as:

  • American Trucking Associations (ATA)
  • Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA)
  • National Association of Small Trucking Companies (NASTC)

Develop strong communication skills

Good communication skills are essential, as you’ll need to interact with dispatchers, clients, and others regularly. This includes clearly conveying information, understanding instructions, and dealing with issues or conflicts professionally.

Commit to continuous learning

This field is continually evolving with new technologies, regulations, and best practices. Here are some suggestions for continuous learning:

  • Take refresher driving courses to stay updated with the latest techniques and regulations
  • Attend industry events and workshops
  • Learn about the latest trucking technologies and equipment

Understand the industry

A deep understanding of the trucking industry, including regulations, logistics, and trends, can help you perform your role more effectively. Stay updated with industry news, understand your clients’ needs and expectations, and learn about different types of cargo and how to handle them.

Be patient and adaptable

Truck driving can often involve unexpected delays, such as traffic jams, road works, or changes in delivery schedules. Being patient and adaptable can help you navigate these challenges effectively and maintain your performance under changing conditions.

Maintain your vehicle

Regularly maintaining your truck can help prevent breakdowns, improve safety, and enhance fuel efficiency. This includes regular inspections, timely repairs, and understanding how to troubleshoot common issues.

Embrace technology

Technological advancements have significantly transformed truck driving, with tools like GPS navigation, electronic logging devices, and advanced safety features playing a pivotal role. Embracing these technologies can improve your efficiency, safety, and overall job performance.

Where the truck driver jobs are

Top companies

  • J.B. Hunt transport services
  • Schneider national
  • YRC freight
  • UPS 
  • FedEx

Top states

  • Texas
  • California
  • Florida
  • Pennsylvania
  • Illinois

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • TruckDriver.com
  • LinkedIn
  • Monster


What does a truck driver typically do on a daily basis?

Their primary responsibility is transporting goods from one location to another. This involves planning routes, loading and unloading cargo, maintaining logs of their activities and the vehicle’s condition, and ensuring timely delivery. They also perform routine vehicle inspections to ensure safety and compliance with regulatory standards.

What skills are most important for a truck driver?

Key skills include:

  • Excellent driving skills
  • A good sense of direction
  • An understanding of road safety regulations

They should also have strong time management skills to ensure deliveries are made on schedule. Additionally, physical stamina is vital due to the need to load and unload cargo and the long hours spent driving.

What kind of education is usually required for a truck driver?

Most roles require a high school diploma or equivalent. Additionally, they must hold a valid CDL, which involves passing both written and practical exams. Some companies may also require drivers to complete a professional truck driving training program.

What types of industries employ truck drivers?

They are employed across many industries, particularly those that rely on the transportation of goods. This includes retail, manufacturing, construction, food and beverage, and logistics sectors. Drivers may work for trucking companies or retail chains or operate independently as owner-drivers.

How do I create a resume for a truck driver?

When you begin looking for trucking positions, you will want to look at several job descriptions to get an idea of what companies are looking for. Pay attention to the different job requirements needed to be a competitive applicant. 

Along with your contact information, they should include their training, experience, and the endorsements they’ve added to their CDL. 

What are the main challenges faced by a truck driver?

Drivers often face challenges such as long hours, time away from home, fatigue, and the physical demands of loading and unloading cargo. They must also deal with traffic, inclement weather, and tight delivery schedules. In addition, ensuring compliance with safety and regulatory standards is a continuous responsibility.

What role does technology play in a truck driver’s job?

Technology plays an increasing role in their job. GPS systems aid in route planning, digital logs help maintain hours and vehicle status records, and onboard sensors monitor various aspects of the vehicle’s condition. In addition, technology aids in communication with dispatchers and customers.

What are the physical demands of being a truck driver?

This role can be physically demanding. Drivers often spend long hours sitting, leading to health issues like back pain or repetitive strain injuries. Loading and unloading cargo can involve heavy lifting and physical exertion. The lifestyle associated with long-haul trucking, including irregular sleep and eating patterns, can also have health implications.

How does a truck driver ensure safety on the road?

Drivers ensure safety on the road by adhering to traffic laws, following safe driving practices, maintaining their vehicle properly, and taking regular rest breaks to avoid fatigue. They must also be alert to road conditions and weather, adjusting their driving to maintain safety.

What career progression opportunities are available for a truck driver?

Career progression can involve moving into roles with greater responsibility or specialization, such as becoming a trainer, a dispatcher, or an owner-operator. With additional education or certification, some may also move into management roles within a trucking or logistics company.