Chef Career Guide

What is a chef?

A chef is a skilled culinary professional who prepares food in various settings, such as restaurants, hotels, resorts, and even personal homes. They create and plan menus, cook food, and supervise the kitchen staff. Chefs have to be creative to come up with new dishes, but they also need technical skills to execute their vision effectively.

As the backbone of the food service industry, these professionals provide the sustenance that fuels our day-to-day lives. Whether they’re serving up a hearty breakfast in a local café or crafting an exquisite five-course meal in a Michelin-star restaurant, their work impacts people directly. Their skills and expertise help elevate our eating experience, making everyday meals and special occasions truly memorable.

Duties and responsibilities

As the creative force behind the kitchen, a chef is responsible for a broad range of tasks. They devise and refine menus, considering factors like seasonal availability of ingredients, guests’ dietary needs, food trends, and the cost of each dish. Creating delectable dishes that keep patrons coming back for more is also a key part of their role.

Management duties form a significant part of their responsibilities, including overseeing the kitchen staff, maintaining food safety compliance, ordering supplies, and controlling the budget. They also manage tasks like staff training, hiring, and scheduling. Additionally, these professionals often oversee the plating and presentation of dishes, ensuring they are visually appealing and served at the appropriate temperature.

Work environment

Chefs typically work in the confines of a kitchen. This environment is fast-paced, often stressful, and requires the ability to work under pressure. They must be able to multitask efficiently as they juggle between different tasks such as directing kitchen staff, monitoring the cooking process, and inspecting food quality.

The surroundings can become hot and noisy with the constant hum of kitchen appliances. Attention to safety is imperative as kitchens are places with sharp objects and hot surfaces. Despite these challenges, the kitchen also offers a sense of camaraderie and teamwork, which many chefs find rewarding.

Typical work hours

Chefs often work full-time, and their schedule can vary wildly depending on the setting in which they work. In establishments that serve breakfast, they may begin their day in the early morning. If they work in a restaurant serving dinner only, they might start in the afternoon and work late into the night.

Working weekends, holidays, and other times when most people are dining out is the norm in their profession. Early starts and late finishes might be required, and sudden spikes in business can extend work hours unexpectedly. The job can also involve managing multiple tasks at once, making it a high-energy profession requiring long periods on one’s feet.

How to become a chef

This career guide section outlines how to become a chef. The journey involves a combination of formal education, hands-on training, and cultivating a creative flair for food.

Step 1: High school diploma or equivalent

Most chefs start their journey after completing high school. Focusing on subjects like math, English, and home economics can provide valuable foundational skills for a career in the kitchen. At this stage, students can also consider after-school or part-time jobs in local restaurants to gain early exposure to the food industry.

Step 2: Culinary education

After high school, aspiring chefs often enroll in culinary schools or colleges offering degrees in culinary arts. Typically, culinary programs last two to four years, during which students learn about food safety, nutrition, menu planning, and cooking techniques. A culinary degree can provide a competitive edge in the job market and open opportunities for specialized roles.

Step 3: Internship or apprenticeship

Internships or apprenticeships are often part of formal culinary education. These positions offer hands-on experience in a professional kitchen, allowing aspiring individuals to apply their theoretical knowledge. This experience is crucial as it provides a firsthand understanding of kitchen operations, food preparation, and presentation techniques.

Step 4: Entry-level kitchen positions

Upon graduation, most professionals start in entry-level positions such as line cook or preparatory cook. These roles allow individuals to hone their culinary skills while gaining an understanding of kitchen dynamics, including collaboration with other kitchen staff, managing meal rushes, and maintaining high food quality standards.

Step 5: Advancing career through experience

As they gain experience, they can advance to more challenging roles such as sous-chef or even head chef. Each advancement requires a deep understanding of culinary skills, leadership, management, and the ability to handle high-pressure kitchen situations. By building a strong portfolio of eclectic and innovative dishes, these professionals demonstrate their culinary skills and creativity, both integral parts of becoming successful in this career.

Step 6: Continued learning and specialization

The field of culinary arts is continuously evolving, and chefs need to keep up with the latest trends and techniques. This may involve further courses or training in specialized areas such as pastry making or diet-specific cuisine (e.g., vegan or gluten-free). This continuous learning helps them expand their skills, be versatile, and stay competitive in the market.

How much do chefs make?

Chef salaries will vary by experience, industry, education, location, and organization size. The level of creativity, reputation, expertise in various cuisines, and recognition, such as Michelin Stars, also impact their remuneration significantly.

Highest paying industries

  • Traveler Accommodation: $63,000
  • Special Food Services: $60,000
  • Amusement Parks and Arcades: $58,000
  • Restaurants: $55,000
  • Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance: $53,000

Highest paying states

  • New Jersey: $70,000
  • Rhode Island: $68,000
  • New York: $65,000
  • Massachusetts: $63,000
  • California: $62,000

Browse chef salary data by market

Types of chefs

This career guide section highlights the various career types and areas of specialization for chefs. Below, we highlight the unique attributes and responsibilities of each job title.

Executive chef

Often considered the top of the culinary ladder, executive chefs oversee entire restaurant operations, menu planning, and staff supervision. Their role extends beyond the kitchen into business planning, budgeting, and customer relations. This role requires a blend of culinary skill, creativity, and excellent leadership abilities.

Sous chef

A sous chef is second in command in the kitchen, directly beneath the executive chef. They assist in menu planning, food preparation, and kitchen staff management. Additionally, they often take over cooking and operation duties in the executive chef’s absence. A successful sous chef exhibits strong culinary abilities, good organizational skills, and effective team leadership.

Pastry chef

Pastry chefs specialize in creating dessert items such as cakes, pastries, and other baked goods. They require knowledge of baking techniques, the ability to craft inventive dessert recipes, and a knack for presentation, as visual appeal is key in this area of the culinary world. These professionals often work in bakeries, patisseries, and restaurants.

Station chef

In larger kitchens, a station chef or chef de partie is responsible for a specific area or type of food. Titles may include grill chef, fish chef, or saucier, each corresponding to their respective roles. This position requires significant expertise in a narrow field but offers intensive skill development opportunities.

Private chef

Private chefs work in clients’ homes, providing customized meals based on dietary needs and personal preferences. These chefs often create their own menus, shop for ingredients, and clean up after meals. Flexibility, personal interaction skills, and the ability to cater to specific dietary needs are all necessary in this profession.

Top skills for chefs

This section outlines the primary skills and traits needed for career success as a chef. Thriving in a culinary career requires a mixture of hands-on food preparation skills, creativity, leadership, and business acumen.

Culinary skills

Combining culinary education and practical experience, chefs must master a range of food preparation techniques. From food seasoning, baking, and grilling to plating, a thorough understanding of these techniques can provide the foundation for creating delicious, visually appealing dishes that impress diners.


Creativity is the soul of the culinary field. Being able to produce innovative dishes and presentation styles sets a skilled chef apart. This creative spark can fuel the development of new recipes, encourage experimental combinations of flavors and ingredients, and contribute to a memorable dining experience.


Their role often extends beyond just cooking; overseeing kitchen staff is part of the job. Effective management of a kitchen team calls for strong leadership abilities, the capacity to delegate, and solid communication skills. These professionals must inspire collaboration and maintain high standards of performance within their team.

Business acumen

Running a kitchen successfully requires more than just cooking proficiency. Understanding inventory management, cost control, and menu pricing are critical aspects of the role. Those with a strong business sense can maintain budget-friendly operations without compromising the quality or creativity of dishes.

Attention to detail

Detail orientation is vital in food preparation and presentation. They must pay careful attention to the ingredients, cooking processes, and aesthetic presentation of dishes. This meticulous approach helps to guarantee consistent quality, enhance visual appeal, and foster a remarkable dining experience.

Chef career path options

Every journey starts with a single step, and the career progression of a chef is no different. Starting as a line cook in a restaurant gives you the practical experience and skills necessary to advance in the food industry. After a few years of understanding the ins and outs of a commercial kitchen, many find potential opportunities to step up and become sous chefs. Here, they gain exposure to menu planning, kitchen management, and the financial aspects of running a restaurant.

While the role of a sous chef is challenging, it is often seen as a stepping stone to becoming a head chef. Head chefs have the ultimate responsibility for the overall operation of their kitchens, and they work to create menus, devise specials, and oversee all kitchen activities. They could work in a variety of settings, from restaurants and hotels to private homes and event venues.

As these professionals gain experience and a strong reputation, they might choose to specialize in a particular cuisine or approach to cooking. They have opportunities to become an executive chef or chef de cuisine, which entails more leadership and management. In these positions, they are often responsible for multiple locations or a group of related eateries.

Eventually, some choose to open their own restaurants, becoming entrepreneurs and business owners. This allows them to take full creative control over their culinary vision. They are not just cooking food but also managing staff, planning budgets, negotiating with suppliers, marketing their establishment, and much more.

Finally, there’s also an opportunity to step out of the kitchen. Many experienced chefs leverage their knowledge and reputation to write cookbooks, host cooking shows, offer cooking classes, or consult for restaurant chains and food manufacturers. This shift can open up a new world of potential earnings while still using the skills and passion that drove them to become a chef in the first place.

The culinary world has shifted toward sustainable and locally sourced foods. Chefs are increasingly sourcing their ingredients from local farms and producers to offer meals that not only taste good but also contribute to the local economy. This shift has led to the growth of ‘farm-to-table’ restaurants, reflecting the increased demand for local and fresh food.

This profession has also noticed a swell in incorporating technology. More professionals are using digital tools to streamline kitchen processes. From order management systems to innovative cooking appliances, technology aids in enhancing efficiency, reducing waste, and improving food quality. Additionally, social media has become an indispensable tool for self-promotion and engaging with customers.

Employment projections

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment for chefs is projected to grow 5 percent through 2032, faster than the average for all occupations. Most job opportunities will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

Chef career tips

Understand food quality and freshness

One must be acutely aware of the quality and freshness of the ingredients used. Those sensitive to the quality of their ingredients are known for their exceptional dishes. They can better design menus, determine required supplies, and ensure the food’s quality meets their standards. Stale ingredients can ruin a dish, so chefs should be alert to the freshness of their supplies.

Specialize in a cuisine or dish

Choosing to specialize in a particular cuisine or dish can help a chef stand out. Whether it’s French cuisine or vegan dishes, picking a niche allows these professionals to showcase their unique skills and culinary style, making them sought after in their specialty. They should research and study their chosen area, potentially traveling to the cuisine’s origin for a deep, authentic understanding.

Build a professional network

Building a professional network benefits any chef looking to advance in their career. Networking with other professionals in the culinary world allows opportunities for learning, collaboration, and potential job openings. They can keep up with the latest trends in the industry, and it’s an excellent opportunity to showcase one’s craft at cooking demonstrations and events.

  • James Beard Foundation
  • The American Culinary Federation
  • International Association of Culinary Professionals
  • Women Chefs & Restaurateurs

Participate in continuous learning

A commitment to continuous learning is a key trait of a successful chef. With changing trends and new techniques emerging continually, these professionals must stay updated to remain relevant in the competitive culinary scene. Regularly attending culinary workshops, enrolling in courses, and reading culinary literature will help in this aspect.

  • Enroll in advanced culinary arts courses
  • Attend cooking and food service workshops
  • Stay updated with culinary literature
  • Participate in relevant webinars and online classes

Achieve relevant certifications

Earning relevant certifications can significantly boost a chef’s career, proving their skill set and dedication to their craft. Certifications like the Certified Executive Chef (CEC) or Certified Master Chef (CMC) awarded by The American Culinary Federation can enhance their credibility. They should consider the specialty they want to pursue and acquire the necessary certifications to validate their expertise.

Where the chef jobs are

Top employers

  • Gordon Ramsay Restaurants
  • Compass Group
  • Sodexo
  • Aramark
  • Darden Restaurants

Top states

  • California
  • New York
  • Texas
  • Florida
  • Illinois

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • LinkedIn
  • ChefCrossing
  • FairKitchen


What education is needed to become a chef?

Candidates interested in becoming a chef can pursue formal education through culinary arts programs offered by community colleges, universities, and culinary institutes. These programs may offer apprenticeships for hands-on experience. Some start their careers through on-the-job training or attending a cooking school. In addition to technical skills, creativity, communication skills, and physical stamina are vital.

What skills are essential for a chef?

A chef should be creative and possess a passion for food, an understanding of business operations, leadership skills, and the ability to work under pressure. They also need to understand and comply with health and safety regulations. Multitasking and time management skills, as well as physical stamina, are also important as kitchen environments can be fast-paced.

What does a typical day look like for a chef?

A typical day for a chef may include creating menus, preparing meals, overseeing kitchen staff, ordering supplies, managing budgets, and ensuring health and safety regulations are followed. They may also repair professional relationships with vendors and train new staff. Their day usually starts early and ends late, often extending into evenings, weekends, and holidays.

Are there opportunities for self-employment as a chef?

Yes, many chefs opt to be self-employed. They may open their own restaurant or catering business or offer personal chef services. This path requires not only culinary skills but also business acumen to manage all aspects of the operation, including financial planning, marketing, and human resources.

What are the most challenging aspects of being a chef?

Being a chef can be physically demanding and stressful. Long hours of standing and high pressure to deliver top-quality food swiftly can be challenging. Additionally, managing staff and maintaining high cleanliness and safety standards in the kitchen are their key responsibilities. Balancing creativity with the needs and preferences of customers, as well as cost control, is another challenge often faced in this role.

What is the work environment like for a chef?

The work environment for a chef is predominantly in kitchens that can be hot and fast-paced. It requires a good deal of physical activity, including standing for extended periods, lifting heavy cooking pots, and doing repetitive tasks. Most work full-time, including early mornings, late evenings, weekends, and holidays. Stress levels can be high, with the need to prepare meals quickly and accurately during peak hours.

How can a chef improve their skills?

Chefs can enhance their skills by learning new recipes and cooking techniques, experimenting with different ingredients, and studying various world cuisines. Keeping up to date with current food trends and culinary tools can also help them innovate in their professional kitchens. Additionally, interacting with other professionals in the field, attending workshops and industry events, and taking additional culinary courses can contribute to skill improvement.

Do chefs specialize in a specific cuisine?

Yes, some chefs specialize in one style of cooking, such as French or Italian cuisine, while others may focus on a particular type of food, like desserts or seafood. They may also specialize by catering to dietary requirements like gluten-free, vegetarian, or vegan diets. Having a specialty can be an asset and can help chefs distinguish themselves in the food industry.