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Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) Career Guide

What is a speech-language pathologist?

A speech-language pathologist, also known as an SLP or speech therapist, is a licensed healthcare professional who assesses, diagnoses, and treats communication and swallowing disorders. They work with individuals of all ages, from infants to older adults, who experience speech, language, voice, fluency, or swallowing difficulties. Individualized treatment plans are developed and implemented to help patients overcome challenges and improve their overall quality of life.

SLPs are trained in therapeutic techniques and strategies to address a wide range of communication and swallowing disorders. These may result from various causes, such as developmental delays, neurological disorders, brain injuries, hearing loss, or genetic conditions. They empower patients to communicate more effectively by providing targeted interventions and support, enhancing their social, academic, and professional success.

Many patients have difficulty with speech or language disorders because they prevent clear communication, so speech therapists must be compassionate. Understanding what patients are going through helps to connect with patients and succeed with treatment. 

SLPs must have a knack for scientific processes. Understanding biological and social sciences and anatomy will help with treating patients. Treatment is different for everyone, so pathologists must adapt when creating and adjusting plans for various situations or disorders. 

Duties and responsibilities

Speech-language pathologists assess, diagnose, and treat communication and swallowing disorders. They begin by conducting comprehensive evaluations, including observing patients, administering standardized tests, and analyzing speech and language samples. Based on the findings, an individualized treatment plan is developed and tailored to a patient’s needs and goals.

Various therapeutic techniques are used to address issues such as articulation, language comprehension, expressive language, voice disorders, fluency, and swallowing difficulties. SLPs educate and support patients’ families, caregivers, and educators, offering guidance or strategies to facilitate communication and promote progress outside therapy sessions. Detailed records track progress, and collaboration with other healthcare professionals is conducted as needed to ensure comprehensive care.

Work environment

Speech therapists work in various settings, including hospitals, rehabilitation centers, schools, private practice, and research facilities. They work with a diverse range of patients, from children with speech and language development issues to adults suffering from neurological disorders or injuries.

The role can be both physically and emotionally demanding, as it involves standing for long periods and dealing with the emotional challenges of patients struggling with communication disorders. However, it can also be highly rewarding, particularly when they see their patients make significant progress.

Typical work hours

The typical hours for an SLP can vary based on the type of work performed. Most full-time pathologists work 40 hours a week during traditional business hours. Those in schools may start as early as 7:00 am and work until 3:00 pm.

Private practitioners can set work hours or schedules to fit their lifestyles. Weekend or holiday office hours garner more revenue than regular business hours.  

How to become a speech-language pathologist

In this career guide section, we cover the steps you’ll need to take to achieve your goal of becoming an SLP:

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field

The first step is earning a bachelor’s degree in a field that prepares you for graduate school. Popular undergraduate majors include communication sciences and disorders, language development, education, linguistics, psychology, and English. The communication sciences and disorders major is typically the best since its requirements usually include all the prerequisites for graduate school. 

Here are the standard prerequisite courses needed for a master’s degree:

  • Anatomy & Physiology of the Speech Mechanism focuses on the structures and functions of systems and processes involved in speech production. This usually covers the phonatory, articulatory, resonatory, and nervous systems and how they relate to sound waves. 
  • Phonetics, or the science of speech sounds, covers how sounds are produced, perceived, and classified.
  • Language Development discusses different developmental periods when children understand language and communicate with speech. 
  • Communication Disorders is an introductory course into the different types of communication disorders. This involves an overview of speech, language, cognitive, swallowing, and feeding disorders that pathologists help diagnose and treat. 

Step 2: Obtain a master’s degree in speech-language pathology

Once you earn a bachelor’s degree, it is time to look at universities offering a master’s degree in speech-language pathology. Before admission into graduate school, ASHA requirements for undergraduate work must be completed. This involves:  

  • Taking one or more courses in the following areas:
    • Statistics
    • Physical Sciences
    • Behavioral/Social Sciences
    • Biological Sciences
  • Completing 25 clinical observation hours
  • Considering taking the following recommended courses:
    • Neuroscience/Neuroanatomy
    • Auditory Rehabilitation
    • Speech Sound Disorders

Step 3: Complete the required number of supervised clinical hours

During a graduate program, you can complete 400 hours of supervised clinical experience as a “practicing” speech-language pathologist. Twenty-five hours must be in guided clinical observation, while 375 hours must be in direct patient contact. Guided clinical observation includes activities such as viewing educational videos, discussing therapy and evaluation procedures that have been observed, and documentation practices. Direct patient contact includes time with patients and dealing with particular speech and language disorders.  

Step 4: Find a specialty

There are many different work environments for SLPs. They can work in schools, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, or residential healthcare facilities. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association recognizes various areas of specialization, including:

  • Motor Speech Disorders
  • Fluency Disorders
  • Language Disorders
  • Feeding & Swallowing Disorders
  • Cognition-Communication Disorders
  • Resonance Disorders

Speech therapists gain experience with disorders during supervised clinical hours in graduate school. It is essential to learn more about disorders before choosing a specialty. 

Step 5: Pass the Praxis exam

You must pass the Praxis examination to become licensed to work in your state as a practicing speech-language pathologist. The Praxis demonstrates competence, knowledge, and instructional skills for various situations. The exam allows 150 minutes to answer 132 questions, and the current passing score for ASHA certification is 162 based on a 100-200 scale. Some states may require lower or higher scores to become licensed. 

The Praxis examinations cover the following topics:

  • Foundations and Professional Practice
  • Screening, Assessment, Evaluation, and Diagnosis
  • Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of Treatment 

These topics will focus on the Big Nine areas: 

  • Speech sound production
  • Fluency
  • Voice, resonance, motor speech
  • Receptive and expressive language
  • Social aspects of communication, including pragmatics
  • Communication impairments related to cognition
  • Treatment involving augmentative and alternative communication
  • Hearing and aural rehabilitation
  • Swallowing and feeding

Step 6: Complete a clinical fellowship

A nine-month clinical fellowship must be completed after passing the Praxis examination and becoming licensed. A minimum of 1,260 hours of clinical experience must be earned. At least 80% of those hours must be direct clinical contact regarding disorders, diagnoses, and treatment. The other 20% of hours can be met through various activities, including attending training sessions or giving presentations.

Examples of direct clinical contact include: 

  • Screening, response to intervention, or observations of patient
  • Assessment and diagnostic evaluations
  • Treatment
  • Writing reports or notes
  • patient consultation or counseling
  • Individualized Education Program meetings

Step 7: Get certified through the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Most states require certification through the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) to become licensed. Here are ASHA’s standards for becoming a nationally certified speech-language pathologist (CCC-SLP):  

  • Earn a graduate degree from an accredited program
  • Clock 1,600+ hours of supervised clinical experience during schooling and a clinical fellowship
  • Pass the Praxis examination 
  • Take 30 hours of continuing education credits every three years for license renewal

Step 8: Stay up-to-date with certification, licenses, and continuing education

Continuing education requirements may vary from state to state. Most SLPs must attend additional training or courses to keep their licenses active. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association requires 30 hours of continuing education credits every three years. In addition, consider taking courses to develop relevant skills.

Here is a sample of some of the options available for continuing education:

How much do speech-language pathologists make?

A variety of factors can influence an SLP’s salary. Educational background plays a central role, as all professionals in this field require a master’s degree, and those with a doctoral degree may command higher salaries. Experience also heavily influences earning potential, with seasoned professionals making more than their less-experienced counterparts. Industry and area of specialty also impact salary; for instance, speech therapists in healthcare settings may earn more than those in educational services. Geographic location also plays a considerable role, with pathologists making more in urban areas or states with a higher cost of living.

Finally, the employer’s size, whether a school district, hospital, or private practice, can also affect compensation.

Highest paying industries

  • Management of Companies – $100,050
  • Home Healthcare – $95,460
  • Residential Care Facilities – $94,680
  • Health Practitioner Offices – $90,035
  • General Medical and Surgical Hospitals – $89,650

Highest paying states

  • New Jersey – $95,100
  • California – $93,510
  • New York – $91,740
  • Colorado – $90,980
  • Connecticut – $90,550

Browse SLP salary data by market

Specializations of speech-language pathologists

Speech-language pathology services fall into nine different categories. Although pathologists have experience with all nine, they may only specialize in one or two types. In this career guide section, we will explore the different specialties, shedding light on their unique responsibilities and areas of focus. 


This area focuses on the pronunciation of speech. Pathologists teach people how to properly move their tongue, lips, teeth, and jaw to produce speech sounds. 


Fluency refers to the smoothness and effort that goes into speech production. The focus is treating disfluencies such as repetitions, prolongations, and blocks.

Voice & resonance

These types of disorders focus on the sound vibrations in the pharynx (throat), oral cavity (mouth), and nasal cavity (nose). 


These pathologists help individuals with comprehension or the use of language difficulties.


This area includes attention, concentration, orientation, and word retrieval. 


In collaboration with audiologists, patients are helped with hearing impairments to improve communication. 


These pathologists help diagnose and treat swallowing disorders by observing the patient eating and drinking and providing them with different exercises to strengthen swallowing muscles. 

Social communication

This category involves pragmatics, social interaction, social understanding, and language processing. These pathologists offer techniques and strategies to strengthen social skills and language competence.

Top skills for speech-language pathologists

SLPs draw on many skills to deliver optimal patient care. These skills comprise deep clinical knowledge and expertise in speech-language pathology, excellent communication skills, sharp observational skills, strong problem-solving capabilities, high levels of patience and compassion, and solid documentation and record-keeping abilities. Understanding a patient’s needs and tailoring treatment plans accordingly is an integral part of the role, as is maintaining ongoing professional development in an ever-evolving field.

Pathologists need extensive clinical knowledge and expertise to effectively diagnose, evaluate, and treat speech, language, communication, and swallowing disorders. This involves a comprehensive understanding of physiological and developmental aspects of speech and language mechanisms. It is important to stay updated with the latest research and treatment methodologies to provide the most effective care.

Strong communication skills are necessary to communicate complex concepts clearly and concisely to patients and their families. Pathologists must be able to actively listen to understand a patient’s needs, concerns, and goals. These communication abilities extend to interactions with other healthcare professionals, making it a critical skill for ensuring holistic care.

Assessing and treating speech and language disorders requires good observational skills. Pathologists must be able to closely observe a patient’s verbal and nonverbal cues to identify abnormalities, track progress, and adapt treatment strategies. Adeptness at noticing subtle changes or improvements significantly influences a patient’s therapy plan.

Speech therapists frequently encounter diverse and complex cases, making problem-solving skills essential. They need to use critical thinking to diagnose disorders, develop customized treatment plans, and modify treatment based on a patient’s progress or response to therapy.

Their work requires considerable patience and compassion. Speech and language therapy requires repetitive practice, so patience encourages patients to remain persistent. Compassion and empathy are the cornerstones of supportive, patient-centric care.

Maintaining accurate and up-to-date records is crucial in speech-language pathology. This includes documenting assessments, treatment plans, progress notes, and other relevant information. Good record-keeping ensures continuity of care, aids in tracking progress, and supports billing and reimbursement procedures. It also forms a vital part of compliance with healthcare’s legal, ethical, and professional standards.

Speech-language pathologist career path

A career as an SLP typically begins with an entry-level position, often in a supportive role to more experienced clinicians. In this initial phase, recent graduates can apply theoretical knowledge gained during academic training to practical, real-world scenarios. Working with experienced speech therapists promotes learning from their expertise.

After gaining some years of experience and additional certification in a chosen area of focus, speech-language pathologists often progress to more senior positions. They handle more complex cases at this stage and begin specializing in pediatrics, geriatrics, or specific speech or language disorders. These specialized roles often require additional training and certification but offer the opportunity to become an expert in a particular area.

Experienced SLPs can take on supervisory roles, overseeing the work of less experienced clinicians. They may provide training and guidance, help develop therapy plans, and ensure quality standards are met.

The next potential step on the career ladder could be a management or directorial position. These roles often involve administrative tasks and managing a team or department. Sometimes, these positions may require a higher degree, such as a doctorate or a master’s in health administration.

Alternatively, some pathologists may decide to move into academia or research. In these roles, they can contribute to the development of the field by teaching future generations of speech therapists or conducting research to advance our understanding of speech and language disorders.

The role of speech therapists is becoming increasingly recognized and valued in various settings such as schools, hospitals, private practice, and telehealth platforms. Increased autism diagnosis rates and a more comprehensive understanding of communication disorders have increased the demand.

Technological advancements have ushered in new forms of therapy, like computer-based articulation and voice therapy programs, providing innovative tools for intervention. Telepractice, the online delivery of speech-language pathology services, is another growing trend in the field, making services more accessible to those living in remote areas or with mobility issues.

Employment projections for SLPs

According to the latest data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment for speech-language pathologists is projected to grow 21% through 2031, much faster than the average for all occupations. As the baby-boom population grows older, there may be an increase in conditions such as strokes and dementia, which can cause speech or language impairments.

Pathologists will be needed to treat more patients with these conditions. Additionally, medical advances are improving the survival rate of premature infants and victims of trauma and stroke who require assessment and possible treatment.

Speech-language pathologist career tips

Understand your patients’ perspectives

Being an SLP involves more than understanding the technical aspects of speech and language disorders; it requires empathy and understanding patients’ experiences. Spend time understanding patients’ perspectives, feelings, and frustrations. This will help build rapport, earn trust, and better address specific needs.

Stay updated with research

Speech-language pathology is a dynamic field, with ongoing research continually unveiling new techniques and approaches for managing speech and language disorders. Stay updated with the latest research findings by subscribing to professional journals, attending webinars, and participating in workshops.

Collaborate with other professionals

Pathologists often work with other professionals, including psychologists, occupational therapists, and educators. Building solid relationships with these professionals can enhance your understanding of patient’s needs and help provide a more holistic care approach.

Build a professional network

Building a professional network can significantly benefit your practice as a speech therapist. It can lead to collaboration opportunities, job leads, learning, and more. Here are a few professional associations and networks worth exploring:

  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
  • The National Aphasia Association
  • International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics
  • Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences
  • Special Interest Group for Speech-Language Pathologists (SIG-SLP)

Continuous learning

Given the dynamic nature of speech-language pathology, continuous learning is essential. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Subscribe to professional journals and attend webinars and conferences to keep updated with the latest trends and techniques in speech-language pathology
  • Additional certifications in specialized areas, such as dysphagia or language literacy, can enhance skills and make you a more versatile professional
  • Understanding various populations’ cultural and linguistic nuances can help serve a more diverse range of patients

Embrace technology

The role of technology in speech-language pathology is growing, with numerous apps and software programs available to assist with therapy. Being comfortable with and integrating this technology into your practice can enhance services and make treatment more engaging and accessible for patients.

Work on your communication skills

While this may seem obvious for an SLP, it’s worth reinforcing. Excellent communication skills are vital in therapy sessions and when interacting with patients’ families, other healthcare professionals, and stakeholders. Clearly and empathetically convey information and be an excellent listener.

Practice self-care

Speech-language pathology can be a demanding job, both physically and emotionally. It’s important to prioritize self-care and maintain a healthy work-life balance. This can help prevent burnout and ensure you can provide patients with the best care.

Be patient and persistent

Progress in speech-language pathology can sometimes be slow, and treatment plans only sometimes yield immediate results. Patience and persistence are key. Celebrate small victories, maintain a positive attitude, and reassure patients they are progressing, even when progress seems slow.

Where the SLP jobs are

Top companies

  • HCA
  • Kindred Healthcare
  • Genesis Rehab Services
  • Reliant Rehabilitation
  • Mayo Clinic

Top states

  • California
  • Texas
  • New York
  • Florida
  • Illinois

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • LinkedIn
  • ASHA
  • SimplyHired


What educational background is necessary for a speech-language pathologist?

To become an SLP, you typically need a master’s degree in speech-language pathology. Before this, an undergraduate degree in communication sciences and disorders or a related field provides a good foundation. A master’s program usually involves both classroom study and clinical experience. After graduation, a period of supervised professional practice, often called a fellowship, is required before becoming fully licensed.

What are the essential skills a speech-language pathologist should possess?

An SLP should have excellent communication skills, as they need to effectively explain treatment plans to patients, their families, and other healthcare providers. They should also have strong problem-solving skills to diagnose speech and language issues and develop appropriate treatment strategies. Empathy, patience, and the ability to work well with people of different ages and backgrounds are important as well.

How important are licensing and certification for a speech-language pathologist?

Licensing is essential in this field. All states require SLPs to be licensed, though the specific requirements can vary. In many cases, this includes having a master’s degree in the field, completing a supervised clinical fellowship, and passing a national examination. Additionally, many employers prefer or require pathologists to have certification from the ASHA.

What does a typical workday look like for a speech-language pathologist?

The typical workday involves assessing, diagnosing, and treating speech, language, cognitive communication, and swallowing disorders in individuals. Pathologists may work with patients one-on-one or in group settings, develop individualized treatment plans, and keep detailed records of patients’ progress. Additionally, they may consult and collaborate with other professionals, like teachers, physicians, and psychologists, to better support patients.

What role does a speech-language pathologist play in a patient’s healthcare team?

As part of a multidisciplinary healthcare team, a pathologist is critical for diagnosing and treating communication and swallowing disorders. To create comprehensive patient care plans, they work closely with other healthcare providers, including doctors, psychologists, physical and occupational therapists, and social workers.

Can a speech-language pathologist specialize in specific areas?

Pathologists can specialize in various areas such as pediatrics, geriatrics, neurology, or specific types of disorders like dysphagia, voice disorders, or cognitive-communication disorders. Specialization involves gaining additional experience, training, or certification in the area of interest.

What settings do speech-language pathologists typically work in?

SLPs work in various settings depending on the population they serve. These include schools, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, residential healthcare facilities, private practices, and research institutions. Some provide home health services or virtual therapy sessions.

Is continuing education necessary for a speech-language pathologist?

Continuing education is vital for maintaining licensure and staying updated with the latest research and treatment techniques. This ongoing learning can be achieved through workshops, conferences, webinars, and formal continuing education courses.

How physically demanding is the job of a speech-language pathologist?

While the job is not typically physically strenuous, it can involve physical demands, such as standing for extended periods during therapy sessions and possibly assisting patients with physical disabilities. Additionally, pathologists may need to move equipment or materials used in therapy.

Do speech-language pathologists often work with other professionals?

Collaboration is a crucial part of the role. Pathologists often work with teams of professionals, including educators, occupational therapists, physical therapists, psychologists, social workers, and physicians, to provide comprehensive care for patients. Effective communication and teamwork skills are essential for therapy.