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Medical Assistant Career Guide

What is a medical assistant?

A medical assistant is a highly skilled healthcare professional who facilitates the delivery of healthcare services by supporting physicians and nurses in their work. Offering patients care and comfort, these professionals are the front-line contact points and bridge the gap between the patients and the doctors.

These assistants contribute significantly to the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare delivery. They organize clinic workflows, conduct basic medical procedures, and manage administrative tasks. They play a vital role in promoting the health and well-being of the community, ensuring patients receive the care they need, and keeping health facilities running seamlessly.

Duties and responsibilities

The job of a medical assistant usually involves a mix of administrative and clinical responsibilities. Administrative duties include scheduling appointments, managing medical records, billing, and processing insurance. They may also be called upon to greet patients, answer phone or in-person questions, and guide their experiences throughout the healthcare facility.

On the clinical side, their duties involve assisting doctors during examinations, taking patient histories and vital signs, and sometimes performing basic laboratory tests. They may also help patients understand their medications and instructions and prep patients for X-rays or other procedures. Their multifaceted roles make them integral to the functioning of any healthcare facility.

Work environment

Medical assistants typically work in various healthcare settings, the most common being outpatient or ambulatory care centers, physician offices, and clinics. The environment is often fast-paced and dynamic, requiring both interpersonal interaction and attention to detail. Their work involves direct patient contact, handling medical equipment, and multitasking across a diverse range of responsibilities.

Typical work hours

As with many roles in the healthcare industry, medical assistants often work full-time. Their hours are typically during regular business hours when most medical offices are open, generally Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. In some cases, depending on the healthcare facility’s needs, they may be required to work evenings, weekends, or on a shift rotation basis.

How to become a medical assistant

This career guide section outlines the process of becoming a medical assistant. In summary, the key steps toward this path involve training and certification, gaining relevant experience, and demonstrating critical skills necessary in the medical field.

Step 1: Get a high school diploma or GED

The first step is earning a high school diploma or equivalent, such as the GED certificate. High school students planning to pursue this career should focus on science and health-related subjects, which will serve as foundational knowledge for further learning and professional skills.

Step 2: Enroll in a medical assistant program

After attaining a high school diploma or GED, you should enroll in a medical assistant program. Various institutions offer these programs, including community colleges, vocational schools, and universities. They typically take one or two years to complete, leading to either a certificate/diploma or an associate’s degree. Courses will cover essential topics like medical terminology, anatomy, and medical office procedures. A comprehensive program also includes hands-on training where you get to practice your skills.

Step 3: Obtain certification

Although employers don’t always require certification, it can significantly enhance your employment prospects. There are several certifications available for this profession, including Certified Medical Assistant (CMA), Registered Medical Assistant (RMA), National Certified Medical Assistant (NCMA), and Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA). These certifications validate your capabilities and show your commitment to the profession.

Step 4: Apply for jobs

Once you have completed your education and obtained relevant certifications, you can start applying for jobs. Leverage online job search platforms, utilize connections made during internships or practicum, and consider jobs at local clinics, hospitals, and other healthcare settings. Be prepared to present your qualifications, certifications, and skills and explain your passion for the medical field during interviews.

Step 5: Gain experience and continue learning

Even after securing an initial position, these professionals should consider ongoing education and experience crucial to their long-term career success. Take advantage of professional development opportunities and stay updated with changes in healthcare policies, procedures, and technologies. Over time, you may specialize in an area such as ophthalmology or pediatrics to enhance your career prospects.

How much do medical assistants make?

Medical assistant salaries will vary by experience, industry, education, location, and organization size. While the educational requirements for this role are relatively uniform across industries, the level of clinical responsibilities can greatly impact compensation.

Highest paying industries

  • Outpatient Care Centers – $37,810
  • Hospitals – $35,920
  • Offices of Other Health Practitioners – $34,650
  • Offices of Physicians – $33,650
  • Universities, Colleges, and Professional Schools – $32,320

Highest paying states

  • Alaska – $43,490
  • Washington – $42,760
  • Massachusetts – $41,780
  • Minnesota – $41,710
  • Connecticut – $40,920

Browse medical assistant salary data by market

Types of medical assistants

Below, we explore common career types and areas of specialization for medical assistants. This guide summarizes the unique roles assistants can take on, which signifies the versatility of this profession.

Clinical medical assistant

As one of the specializations, clinical medical assistants focus on patient care. They function in a patient-facing role, directly interacting with patients and assisting healthcare providers with tasks such as taking patient histories, measuring vital signs, performing basic lab tests, and sterilizing medical equipment. This role is great for individuals who enjoy personal interaction and have a knack for multitasking.

Administrative medical assistant

In contrast, administrative medical assistants handle the operational side of healthcare clinics or hospitals. They perform front-desk tasks like scheduling appointments, managing patient records, billing, and insurance processing. If you’re organized, detail-oriented, and enjoy paperwork and logistical tasks, this path might be a good fit.

Specialized medical assistant

This career path is unique because specialized medical assistants have additional training in specific areas of medicine. This could include pediatrics, cardiology, orthopedics, or obstetrics. Duties can vary significantly depending on the specialization but often include both clinical and administrative tasks tailored to their specialist field.

EKG technician

EKG technicians are medical assistants who specialize in performing electrocardiograms. They administer EKG tests to monitor and record the electrical impulses transmitted by the heart. They work closely with doctors in diagnosing and treating cardiovascular problems in patients. To excel in this role, individuals should be capable of meticulous and precise work.

Phlebotomy technician

These professionals focus on drawing blood for testing or donations. They might also assist in blood testing procedures. This position requires a steady hand and a compassionate approach when dealing with nervous patients.

Top skills for medical assistants

This career guide section outlines the skills and abilities that will help you find success as a medical assistant.

Clinical skills

Proficiency in fundamental clinical tasks is vital in this role. These tasks may include measuring patients’ vital signs, administering injections, doing simple lab tests, and assisting doctors during exams. Knowledge of basic clinical procedures and the ability to perform them accurately contribute to achieving a high standard of patient care.

Administrative skills

These assistants often handle administrative tasks like scheduling appointments, maintaining patient records, and billing. Strong organizational and computer skills are essential to manage these duties effectively. Attention to detail is also crucial as it avoids mistakes in patient records and appointments.

Communication skills

Effective communication is a key ability in this field. They should be able to explain medical information clearly to patients and communicate effectively with doctors and other medical staff. Strong listening skills are vital to understand patients’ concerns and accurately relay them to medical professionals.

Compassion and empathy

Being able to relate to patients and show them compassion is another essential quality. Assistants often work with patients who may be in distress or discomfort. Being empathetic and understanding can help put these patients at ease and improve their overall experience.


The healthcare environment can be fast-paced and unpredictable. Professionals in this role must adapt quickly, from shifting patient needs to new medical procedures or regulations. This adaptability will ensure they can consistently provide high-quality patient care, regardless of the circumstances.

Medical assistant career path options

Starting out as a medical assistant is a stepping stone toward a wide array of healthcare careers. This profession serves well in grooming your fundamental skills and providing you with a solid foundation in healthcare, which is essential for advanced positions. Focused experience and additional education can lead to more specialized roles and opportunities in the medical field.

After acquiring some years of experience, you might consider becoming a licensed practical nurse (LPN) or a registered nurse (RN). This advancement requires additional training and licensure, which the hands-on experience as a medical assistant will definitely be a boost. Job responsibilities increase, but so do the salary and the potential for career advancement. It also offers a deeper level of interaction with patients.

From the LPN or RN stage, with further education, one might decide to become a nurse practitioner. This requires an advanced degree – typically a master’s in nursing. As a nurse practitioner, you’ll have more autonomy than an RN, including the ability to diagnose conditions, prescribe medication, and in some states, operate a private practice.

Another route assistants could choose is to transition into the administrative side of healthcare by becoming a medical and health services manager. This career path entails managing the whole medical facility or a certain department. A bachelor’s degree would be the minimum requirement, but most health services managers hold a master’s degree in health administration or a related field.

Medical assistants are witnessing a shift in their profession, thanks to the rapid advancements in technology and the changing landscape of the healthcare industry. Their role has been evolving over the years, with an increasing demand for technical skills and responsibilities. The move toward electronic health records (EHRs) asks medical workers to become more adept at using digital platforms. They are being trained to use EHR software and other medical applications to keep accurate records and maintain patient confidentiality.

Another trend is the growing need for specialized assistants. As doctors are getting more specialized, they prefer trained staff who can handle specific functions. For instance, those with additional certification in areas like phlebotomy, EKG, or patient care technician are gaining popularity. Therefore, continued education and certification are becoming key drivers for success in this field.

The integration of telemedicine in healthcare delivery is also influencing the role of medical staff. Telemedicine offers a convenient way for patients to consult with doctors remotely, thus lessening the constraints of geographical location or mobility issues. This is enabling medical professionals to broaden their services, carry out remote patient monitoring, and collect electronic data. As a result, assistants are expected to familiarize themselves with these digital tools and take on tasks that involve patient interaction and assistance in a virtual environment.

Employment projections

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of jobs for medical assistants is projected to grow by 16% through 2031. This growth rate significantly outpaces the average for all occupations. An increased need for healthcare services drives the demand due to the aging baby-boom population and is partly fueled by the ongoing transition to EHR systems and telemedicine services.

Medical assistant career tips

Master the basics of medical terminology

Medical assistants must have strong knowledge of medical terminology as they interact daily with physicians, nurses, and patients. You can convert basic knowledge into expertise with regular self-study, attending relevant training, or enrolling in certificate programs that focus on medical terminology.

Improve your computer skills

Most clinical and administrative tasks in modern healthcare require computer skills. Developing skills in EHR systems, Microsoft Office Suite, and medical billing software can make you a valuable asset in the fast-paced world of healthcare.

Understand confidentiality laws

Healthcare professionals, especially those in patient-facing roles such as yours, must have a solid understanding of confidentiality laws, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Adequate knowledge of these laws helps safeguard patient rights and privacy, protecting your practice from legal issues.

Continue your education

Keeping up with the latest developments in healthcare and nutrition can help advance your career. Consider pursuing an advanced degree or specialized certification. Some options may include:

  • Certified Medical Assistant (CMA)
  • Registered Medical Assistant (RMA)
  • Specialized certificate programs in areas like phlebotomy, EKG, or coding

Build a professional network

Networking with other healthcare professionals can open up opportunities for career advancement and mentorship. Attend healthcare conferences and webinars and join professional organizations. Here are a few associations to consider:

  • American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA)
  • American Society of Podiatric Medical Assistants (ASPMA)
  • American Medical Technologists (AMT)
  • Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP)

Where the medical assistant jobs are

Top employers

  • Kaiser Permanente
  • Providence Health & Services
  • Ascension Health
  • Mercy Healthcare
  • Mayo Clinic

Top states

  • California
  • Texas
  • Florida
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania

Top job sites

  • zengig
  • Indeed
  • LinkedIn
  • Monster
  • SimplyHired


What skills are required to become a medical assistant?

This role requires a lifestyle of continuous learning with a strong foundation in basic medical terminology and anatomy. Aside from technical knowledge, it’s important to have well-developed interpersonal skills as the job demands constant patient interaction. Digital literacy, especially with electronic health records, is another key skill.

What is the typical work environment for a medical assistant?

They primarily work in healthcare facilities such as hospitals and doctor’s offices. The work environment is often bustling and fast-paced and requires significant interaction with others, including healthcare professionals and patients. The job may also require a bit of physical labor, such as standing for extended periods and helping lift or move patients.

What are the day-to-day tasks for medical assistants?

Routine tasks can include checking in patients, updating medical records, scheduling appointments, and taking vital signs (such as blood pressure). They may also assist doctors during patient examinations and perform basic laboratory tests. Sometimes, they might also be required to give medications under direct supervision.

What’s the most challenging part of being a medical assistant?

Often, the most challenging part of the job is dealing with distressed or uncooperative patients. This profession demands a lot of patience and emotional stability. They must also adapt to the continual changes in medical regulations and technology.

What’s the most rewarding part of being a medical assistant?

Despite some of the challenges, many find immense satisfaction in knowing they’re making a difference in people’s lives. This role offers the chance to provide support and comfort to patients. Seeing a patient’s health improve, or even just making their experience a little bit better, can be deeply rewarding.

What type of schooling or education do medical assistants need?

They typically need a high school diploma or GED. After high school, prospective assistants can follow several different educational paths, including certificate programs, diploma programs, or associate’s degree programs in medical assisting.

Are there any physical requirements for medical assistants?

Yes, they need to manage a certain level of physical activity. This role may require standing for lengthy periods or moving patients, which requires physical stamina. Close visual acuity is also required for reading patient records, operating machines, and undertaking other tasks.

What types of healthcare settings hire medical assistants?

They can be found in a variety of healthcare settings. These include doctors’ offices, hospitals, outpatient care centers, and specialized clinics. Settings can also include administrative offices in healthcare or educational institutions.

What is the shift like for medical assistants? Does it include night shifts or weekend work?

Their working hours vary widely depending on the specific healthcare setting. While some might work a standard 9-to-5 schedule, others may have to work evenings, weekends, or even overnight. Healthcare is a round-the-clock industry, so many medical facilities require staff to be available for shifts outside the traditional workday.

Is there room for advancement as a medical assistant?

Yes, there’s potential for advancement in this field. With additional education or certification, they can specialize in a specific area of healthcare or even move into managerial roles. For example, an assistant role can be a stepping stone to becoming a nurse, a physician assistant, or a healthcare administrator.